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Grammar: Conjunctions

  1. Basic
  2. Contrast
  3. Reason
  4. Case
  5. Time

Basic

and, with (nouns)
gēn 话and, with (nouns)
文and, with (nouns)
又…又…yòu ... yòu ...and (verbs, adjectives)
或者huòzhěor, and ... respectively
还是háishìeither ... or ...
还有háiyǒuin addition, furthermore
另外lìngwàiin addition, furthermore
除了chúlebesides, except
不是……而是……búshì ... ěrshì ...not ... but ...
不但……而且……búdàn ... ěrqiě ...not only ... but also ...
不仅……也……bùjǐn ... yě ...not only ... but also ...
既……又……jì ... yòu ...... as well as ...
既不……也不……jì bù ... yě bù ...neither ... nor ...

Contrast

虽然suīránalthough, even though
但是dànshìbut, however
可是kěshì 话but, however
不过búguòonly, but, anyway

Sentence pattern:

……,但是……..., dànshì ...
……,可是……..., kěshì ...
虽然……,但是……suīrán ..., dànshì ...

Reason

为了wèilein order to
因为yīnwèibecause, because of
由于yóuyú 文because, because of
所以suǒyǐtherefore, so
因此yīncǐtherefore, thus

Sentence pattern:

因为……,……yīnwéi ..., ...
因为……,所以……yīnwéi ..., suǒyǐ ...
……,所以……..., suǒyǐ ...

Case

如果rúguǒif
要是yàoshì 话if
是否shìfǒuwhether
then, in that case
否则fǒuzéotherwise, else
要不yàobùotherwise, else
……的话de huà(subjunctive mood)

Sentence pattern:

如果……的话,…rúguǒ ... (de huà), ... (jiù) ...
要是……的话,…yàoshì ... (de huà), ... (jiù) ...

Time

……的时候... de shíhouwhen, while
一边……一边……yìbiān ... yìbiān ...... while ...
(two actions at the same time)
一……就……yī ... jiù ...as soon as (once) ..., ...