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Grammar: Conjunctions

  1. Basic
  2. Contrast
  3. Reason
  4. Case
  5. Time

Basic

he²and, with (nouns)
gen¹ 话and, with (nouns)
yu³ 文and, with (nouns)
又…又…you⁴ ... you⁴ ...and (verbs, adjectives)
或者huo⁴ zhe³or, and ... respectively
还是hai² shi⁴either ... or ...
还有hai² you³in addition, furthermore
另外ling⁴ wai⁴in addition, furthermore
除了chu² lebesides, except
不是……而是……bu² shi⁴ ... er³ shi⁴ ...not ... but ...
不但……而且……bu² dan⁴ ... er³ qie³ ...not only ... but also ...
不仅……也……bu⁴ jin³ ... ye³ ...not only ... but also ...
既……又……ji⁴ ... you⁴ ...... as well as ...
既不……也不……ji⁴ bu⁴ ... ye³ bu⁴ ...neither ... nor ...

Contrast

虽然sui¹ ran²although, even though
但是dan⁴ shi⁴but, however
可是ke³ shi⁴ 话but, however
不过bu² guo⁴only, but, anyway

Sentence pattern:

……,但是……..., dan⁴ shi⁴ ...
……,可是……..., ke³ shi⁴ ...
虽然……,但是……sui¹ ran² ..., dan⁴ shi⁴ ...

Reason

为了wei⁴ lein order to
因为yin¹ wei⁴because, because of
由于you² yu² 文because, because of
所以suo³ yi³therefore, so
因此yin¹ ci³therefore, thus

Sentence pattern:

因为……,……yin¹ wei² ..., ...
因为……,所以……yin¹ wei² ..., suo³ yi³ ...
……,所以……..., suo³ yi³ ...

Case

如果ru² guo³if
要是yao⁴ shi⁴ 话if
是否shi⁴ fou³whether
na⁴then, in that case
否则fou³ ze²otherwise, else
要不yao⁴ bu⁴otherwise, else
……的话de hua⁴(subjunctive mood)

Sentence pattern:

如果……的话,…ru² guo³ ... (de hua⁴), ... (jiu⁴) ...
要是……的话,…yao⁴ shi⁴ ... (de hua⁴), ... (jiu⁴) ...

Time

……的时候... de shi² houwhen, while
一边……一边……yi⁴ bian¹ ... yi⁴ bian¹ ...... while ...
(two actions at the same time)
一……就……yi¹ ... jiu⁴ ...as soon as (once) ..., ...