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Grammar: Conjunctions

  1. Basic
  2. Contrast
  3. Reason
  4. Case
  5. Time

Basic

ㄏㄜˊand, with (nouns)
ㄍㄣ  话and, with (nouns)
ˇ 文and, with (nouns)
又…又…ㄧㄡˋ ... ㄧㄡˋ ...and (verbs, adjectives)
或者ㄏㄨㄛˋ ㄓㄜˇor, and ... respectively
还是ㄏㄞˊˋeither ... or ...
还有ㄏㄞˊ ㄧㄡˇin addition, furthermore
另外ㄌㄧㄥˋ ㄨㄞˋin addition, furthermore
除了ㄔㄨˊ ㄌㄜ˙besides, except
不是……而是……ㄅㄨˊˋ ... ㄦˇˋ ...not ... but ...
不但……而且……ㄅㄨˊ ㄉㄢˋ ... ㄦˇ ㄑㄧㄝˇ ...not only ... but also ...
不仅……也……ㄅㄨˋ ㄐㄧㄣˇ ... ㄧㄜˇ ...not only ... but also ...
既……又……ㄐㄧˋ ... ㄧㄡˋ ...... as well as ...
既不……也不……ㄐㄧˋ ㄅㄨˋ ... ㄧㄜˇ ㄅㄨˋ ...neither ... nor ...

Contrast

虽然ㄙㄨㄟ  ㄖㄢˊalthough, even though
但是ㄉㄢˋˋbut, however
可是ㄎㄜˇˋ 话but, however
不过ㄅㄨˊ ㄍㄨㄛˋonly, but, anyway

Sentence pattern:

……,但是……..., ㄉㄢˋˋ ...
……,可是……..., ㄎㄜˇˋ ...
虽然……,但是……ㄙㄨㄟ  ㄖㄢˊ ..., ㄉㄢˋˋ ...

Reason

为了ㄨㄟˋ ㄌㄜ˙in order to
因为ㄧㄣ  ㄨㄟˋbecause, because of
由于ㄧㄡˊˊ 文because, because of
所以ㄙㄨㄛˇˇtherefore, so
因此ㄧㄣ  ㄘˇtherefore, thus

Sentence pattern:

因为……,……ㄧㄣ  ㄨㄟˊ ..., ...
因为……,所以……ㄧㄣ  ㄨㄟˊ ..., ㄙㄨㄛˇˇ ...
……,所以……..., ㄙㄨㄛˇˇ ...

Case

如果ㄖㄨˊ ㄍㄨㄛˇif
要是ㄧㄠˋˋ 话if
是否ˋ ㄈㄡˇwhether
ㄋㄚˋthen, in that case
否则ㄈㄡˇ ㄗㄜˊotherwise, else
要不ㄧㄠˋ ㄅㄨˋotherwise, else
……的话ㄉㄜ˙ ㄏㄨㄚˋ(subjunctive mood)

Sentence pattern:

如果……的话,…ㄖㄨˊ ㄍㄨㄛˇ ... (ㄉㄜ˙ ㄏㄨㄚˋ), ... (ㄐㄧㄡˋ) ...
要是……的话,…ㄧㄠˋˋ ... (ㄉㄜ˙ ㄏㄨㄚˋ), ... (ㄐㄧㄡˋ) ...

Time

……的时候... ㄉㄜ˙ˊ ㄏㄡ˙when, while
一边……一边……ˋ ㄅㄧㄢ  ... ㄧˋ ㄅㄧㄢ  ...... while ...
(two actions at the same time)
一……就……ㄧ  ... ㄐㄧㄡˋ ...as soon as (once) ..., ...