In Chinese there are two ways to change a statement into a yes-no question.
1) Adding a question particle to the end of the sentence
|A)||你会说中文吗？||Ni³ hui⁴ shuo¹ Zhong¹ wen² ma?||Do you speak Chinese?|
|B)||你有笔吗？||Ni³ you³ bi³ ma?||Do you have a pen?|
|C)||她走了吗？||Ta¹ zou³ le ma?||Did she leave?|
|D)||他去过中国吗？||Ta¹ qu⁴ guo Zhong¹ guo² ma?||Has he been to China?|
2) Repeating the verb by it's negated form
|A)||你会不会说中文？||Ni³ hui⁴ bu hui⁴ shuo¹ Zhong¹ wen²?||Do you speak Chinese?|
|B)||你有没有笔？||Ni³ you³ mei² you³ bi³?||Do you have a pen?|
For past tense, the auxiliary verb 有 is used, while the particle 了 is omitted.
|C)||她有没有走？||Ta¹ you³ mei² you³ zou³?||Did she leave?|
|D)||他有没有去过中国？||Ta¹ you³ mei² you³ qu⁴ guo Zhong¹ guo²?||Has he been to China?|
In Chinese, there are no words for yes and no, but two ways to answer yes-no questions.
1) Repeating the verb
|A)||会||hui⁴||Yes, I do|
|A)||不会||bu² hui⁴||No, I don't|
|B)||有||you³||Yes, I have|
|B)||没有||mei² you³||No, I haven't|
|C)||走了||zou³ le||Yes, she did|
|C)||没有走||mei² (you³) zou³||No, she didn't|
|D)||去过||qu⁴ guo||Yes, he has|
|D)||没有去过||mei² (you³) qu⁴ guo||No, he hasn't|
2) Using a replacement verb
|是的||shi⁴ de||So it is|
|不是||bu² shi⁴||It isn't|
|没有||mei² you³||It wasn't|
The question word is always in place of the unknown part of the sentence. So the word order doesn't change at all.
Exception: 呢 is placed on the end of the sentence.
The final particle 啊 may be added to the question in order to emphase it.
|你在哪里啊？||Ni³ zai⁴ na³ li³ a?||Where are you?|
|哪个||na³ ge⁴ / nei³ ge⁴||which|
|什么时候||shen² me shi² hou||when|
|多久||duo¹ jiu³||how long (time)|
|多长时间||duo¹ chang² shi² jian¹||how long (time)|
|多久…一次||duo¹ jiu³ ... yi² ci⁴||how often|
|多常||duo¹ chang²||how often|
|几||ji³||how much, how many (numbers up to 10)|
|多少||duo¹ shao³||how much, how many (larger numbers)|
|为什么||wei⁴ shen² me||why|
|怎么||zen³ me||how, how come (why)|
|怎么样||zen³ me yang⁴||how|